Friday, November 30, 2012

Spears 200,000 Older Than Previously Believed By Evolutionists

Archaeologists Identify Oldest Spear Points: Used in Hunting Half-Million Years Ago
Nov. 15, 2012 — A collaborative study involving researchers at Arizona State University, the University of Toronto, and the University of Cape Town found that human ancestors were making stone-tipped weapons 500,000 years ago at the South African archaeological site of Kathu Pan 1 -- 200,000 years earlier than previously thought. This study, "Evidence for Early Hafted Hunting Technology," is published in the November 16 issue of the journal Science. Attaching stone points to spears (known as "hafting") was an important advance in hunting weaponry for early humans. Hafted tools require more effort and foreplanning to manufacture, but a sharp stone point on the end of a spear can increase its killing power. "There is a reason that modern bow-hunters tip their arrows with razor-sharp edges. These cutting tips are extremely lethal when compared to the effects from a sharpened stick. Early humans learned this fact earlier than previously thought," said Benjamin Schoville, a coauthor of this study and doctoral student affiliated with the Institute of Human Origins, a research center of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at Arizona State University. Hafted spear tips are common in Stone Age archaeological sites after 300,000 years ago. This study shows that hafted spear tips were also used in the early Middle Pleistocene, a period associated with Homo heidelbergensis, the last common ancestor of Neandertals and modern humans. "Rather than being invented twice, or by one group learning from the other, stone-tipped spear technology was in place much earlier," said Schoville. "Although both Neandertals and humans used stone-tipped spears, this is the first evidence that this technology originated prior to or near the divergence of these two species." "It now looks like some of the traits that we associate with modern humans and our nearest relatives can be traced further back in our lineage," said Jayne Wilkins, lead author from the University of Toronto. "This changes the way we think about early human adaptations and capacities before the origin of our own species." Point function was determined by comparing wear on the ancient points to damage inflicted on modern experimental points used to spear a springbok carcass target with a calibrated crossbow. This method has been used effectively to study weaponry from more recent contexts in the Middle East and southern Africa. "When points are used as spear tips, there is a lot of damage that forms at the tip of the point, and large distinctive fractures form. The damage on these ancient stone spear points is remarkably similar to those produced with our calibrated crossbow experiment, and we demonstrate they are not easily created from other processes," said coauthor Kyle Brown, a skilled stone tool replicator with the University of Cape Town. The points were recovered during 1979-1982 excavations by Peter Beaumont of the McGregor Museum, Kimberly, South Africa. In 2010, a team directed by coauthor Michael Chazan from the University of Toronto reported that the point-bearing deposits at KP1 dated to around 500,000 years ago using optically stimulated luminescence and U-series/electron spin resonance methods. The dating analyses were carried out by Naomi Porat, Geological Survey of Israel, and Rainer Grün, Australian National University.

Wednesday, September 5, 2012


Metis. Hesiod, Theogony 886 ff : "Zeus, as king of the gods, took as his first wife Metis, and she knew more than all the gods or mortal people. But when she was about to be delivered of the goddess, gray-eyed Athene, then Zeus, deceiving her perception by treachery and by slippery speeches, put her away inside his own belly. This was by the advices of Gaia (Earth) and starry Ouranos (Sky), for so they counselled, in order that no other everlasting god, beside Zeus, should ever be given kingly position. For it had been arranged that, from her, children surpassing in wisdom should be born, first the gray-eyed girl, the Tritogeneia Athene . . . but then a son to be king over gods and mortals was to be born to her and his heart would be overmastering; but before this, Zeus put her away inside his own belly so that this goddess should think for him, for good and for evil."

Saturday, September 1, 2012

Al-Masudi: The Arab Herodotus

"... the stars wandered confusedly from their courses, and clashed together with a tremendous noise. The king, although greatly affected by this vision, did not disclose it to any person, but was conscious that some great event was about to take place. ... upon which the king ordered the Pyramids to be built, and the predictions of the priests to be inscribed upon columns, and upon the large stones belonging to them; and he placed within them his treasures, and all his valuable property, together with the bodies of his ancestors. He also ordered the priests to deposit within them written accounts of their wisdom and acquirements in the different arts and sciences. Subterraneous channels were also constructed to convey to them the waters of the Nile. He filled the passages with talismans, with wonderful things and idols, and with the writings of the priests, containing all manner of wisdom, the names and properties of medical plants, and the sciences of arithmetic and geometry, that they might remain as records, for the benefit of those who would afterwards comprehend them." -- Al-Masudi, historian, Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems, 947

Wednesday, August 29, 2012

Democritus Guesses Again!

"He [Democritus] said that the ordered worlds are boundless and differ in size, and that in some there is neither sun nor moon, but that in others, both are greater than with us, and yet with others more in number. And that the intervals between the ordered worlds are unequal, here more and there less, and that some increase, others flourish and others decay, and here they come into being and there they are eclipsed. But that they are destroyed by colliding with one another. And that some ordered worlds are bare of animals and plants and all water." -- Hippolytus, priest, 2nd century

NASA discovers first two-planet system orbiting twin suns.
It's been almost a year ago since we made our first discovery of an exoplanet orbiting two suns, prompting everyone to compare it to the planet Tattooine in the "Star Wars" universe. A handful of other planets orbiting two stars have been found since then, but the Kepler-47 system is special: It's the first twin star system discovered that has not one but two planets in orbit. This unusual system was discovered using data from the Kepler telescope that's responsible for numerous exoplanet finds. According to Kepler mission principal investigator William Borucki, "Unlike our sun, many stars are part of multiple-star systems where two or more stars orbit one another. The question always has been — do they have planets and planetary systems? This Kepler discovery proves that they do." The first star in the system is comparable to our sun in size, although only 84% as bright. The other is a dim star, measuring a third of the sun's size and only 1% as bright. Kepler-47b, one of the two planets that most probably has a blazing hot atmosphere due to its proximity to the stars, completes its orbit within 50 days. With a radius three times larger than Earth's, it's currently the smallest planet known to orbit two stars. The other planet, called Kepler-47c, is located much farther away and completes its orbit around the stars in 303 days. But even though it's located in the system's habitable zone, it's unlikely to support life — the planet is a gas giant that's slightly larger than Neptune. Kepler-47's discovery means exoplanet hunters now have to pay special attention to clusters of stars that may be hiding more than one planet. As Borucki said: "In our search for habitable planets, we have found more opportunities for life to exist."

Friday, August 17, 2012

Augustine of Hippo: On Changes of Venus

From the book of Marcus Varro, entitled, Of the Race of the Roman People, I cite word for word the following instance: "There occurred a remarkable celestial portent; for Castor records that, in the brilliant star Venus, called Vesperugo by Plautus, and the lovely Hesperus by Homer, there occurred so strange a prodigy, that it changed its color, size, form, course, which never happened before nor since. Adrastus of Cyzicus, and Dion of Naples, famous mathematicians, said that this occurred in the reign of Ogyges." So great an author as Varro would certainly not have called this a portent had it not seemed to be contrary to nature. For we say that all portents are contrary to nature; but they are not so. For how is that contrary to nature which happens by the will of God, since the will of so mighty a Creator is certainly the nature of each created thing? A portent, therefore, happens not contrary to nature, but contrary to what we know as nature. But who can number the multitude of portents recorded in profane histories? Let us then at present fix our attention on this one only which concerns the matter in hand. What is there so arranged by the Author of nature of heaven and earth as the exactly ordered course of the stars? What is there established by laws so sure and inflexible? And yet, when it pleased Him who with sovereignty and supreme power regulates all He has created, a star conspicuous among the rest by its size and splendor changed its color, size, form, and, most wonderful of all, the order and law of its course! Certainly that phenomenon disturbed the canons of the astronomers, if there were any then, by which they tabulate, as by unerring computation, the past and future movements of the stars, so as to take upon them to affirm that this which happened to the morning star (Venus) never happened before nor since. ... But possibly, though Varro is a heathen historian, and a very learned one, they may disbelieve that what I have cited from him truly occurred; or they may say the example is invalid, because the star did not for any length of time continue to follow its new course, but returned to its ordinary orbit.

Monday, July 30, 2012

Late Stone Age Occurred 20,000 Years Earlier Than Believed Study pushes back onset date of South Africa's Later Stone Age by more than 20,000 years.
The study shows the onset of the Later Stone Age in South Africa likely began some 44,000 to 42,000 years ago, said Paola Villa, a curator at the University of Colorado Museum of Natural History and lead study author. The new dates are based on the use of precisely calibrated radiocarbon dates linked to organic artifacts found at Border Cave in the Lebombo Mountains on the border of South Africa and Swaziland containing evidence of hominid occupation going back 200,000 years. The Later Stone Age is synonymous to many archaeologists with the Upper Paleolithic Period, when modern humans moved from Africa into Europe roughly 45,000 years ago and spread rapidly, displacing and eventually driving Neanderthals to extinction. The timing of the technological innovations and changes in the Later Stone Age in South Africa are comparable to that of the Upper Paleolithic, said Villa. "Our research proves that the Later Stone Age emerged in South Africa far earlier than has been believed and occurred at about the same time as the arrival of modern humans in Europe," said Villa. "But differences in technology and culture between the two areas are very strong, showing the people of the two regions chose very different paths to the evolution of technology and society." A paper on the subject was published July 30 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Co-authors included Sylvain Soriano of the Center National de la Recherche Scientifique, or CNRS, at the University of Paris; Tsenka Tsanova of the Max Planck Institute of Evolutionary Biology in Leipzig, Germany; Ilaria Degano, Jeannette Lucejko and Maria Perla Colombini of the University of Pisa in Italy; Thomas Highham of the University of Oxford in England; Francesco d'Errico of the CNRS at the University of Bordeaux in France; Lucinda Blackwell of the University of Witwatersrand in South Africa; and Peter Beaumont of the McGregor Museum in South Africa. A companion paper published in PNAS and led by d'Errico reports on organic materials found at Border Cave dating to the Later Stone Age, an indication that the San hunter-gatherer culture first thought to have begun about 20,000 years ago in the region probably emerged as early as 44,000 years ago, said Villa.

Friday, June 1, 2012

What Did Isaac Newton Discover?

So far as I can tell, nothing. Isaac Newton is arguably the least original thinker in world history. "... we are like dwarfs on the shoulders of giants...." -- Bernard of Chartres "If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants". -- Isaac Newton. Have scientists ever actually read Newton? None so far as I can tell. The Bible warns us about the moderns: "... they will carry their riches upon the shoulders of young asses" -- Isaiah 30:6

Friday, April 6, 2012

Speakers of The Atlantean Tongue

"The Turdetanians [Andalucians] are ranked as the wisest of the Iberians; and they make use of an alphabet, and possess records of their ancient history, poems, and laws written in verse that are six thousand years old, as they assert. And also the other Iberians use an alphabet, though not letters of one and the same character, for their speech is not one and the same, either." -- Strabo, Geography, Book III, Chapter 1, 1st century

"Palæolithic European man of the Miocene and Pliocene times was a pure Atlantean, as we have previously stated. The Basques are, of course, of a much later date than this, but their affinities, as here shown, go far to prove the original extraction of their remote ancestors. The 'mysterious' affinity between their tongue and that of the Dravidian races of India will be understood by those who have followed our outline of continental formations and shiftings." -- Helena P. Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine, 1888

"According to [F.N.] Finck [one of the greatest authorities on comparative philology], the lesser-known languages of the prehistoric inhabitants of the Mediterranean region are distantly related to ancient Basque, and we know that the oldest Italic aboriginal tribe was called Osci, identical with Ausci and Vascones. If we take these and all the foregoing facts into account, we begin to get a picture of a worldwide complex of linguistic relationships that transcend time and space. We can see Basque, an oddity among modern European languages, as the last relic of a prehistoric world language that was spoken on both sides of the Atlantic." -- Otto H. Muck, The Secret of Atlantis, 1954

Above: Iberian Falcata

"Can we find any solid reasons for believing that here, in the Basques, a relic of Atlantis has been preserved? The Basques themselves provide one: they still have a clear memory of Atlantis. Ernst von Salomon mentions this in his travel book Boche in Frankreich (Boche in France). In about the year 1930, he met a Basque smuggler with aquiline features who talked to him about his people. They were, said the Basque, the finest, proudest, and most independent race on Earth, the same today as in the time described by Titus. They still wore the same costumes, used the same knives, employed the same methods of tilling their fields. Nobody ever betrayed his kith and kin; all still spoke their own language, the oldest language in the world. Von Salomon continues, 'The Basques, he said, are the last relics of a more beautiful, freer, prouder world, long ago sunk below the sea together with Altantis, one of whose last remaining pillars was the Pyrenees, and the other the mountain of Morocco...'" -- Otto H. Muck, The Secret of Atlantis, 1954

Mainstream linguists, philologists, and historians, being ignorant of all classical scholarship and especially Plato, are puzzled by so-called "language isolates." Platonists not so much: DRAVIDIAN / BASQUE ASSOCIATION.
An ancient language form that originated in the North African area of our most ancient civilizations has been studied by Nyland (2001). He found that many words used to describe names of places and things on the Indian Subcontinent seem to be closely related to the ancient language, which is being called Saharan. It appears that the Basque language is a close relative to the original Saharan. ...

We don't have to look far in India to recognize Basque-related names and words, such as:
Himalaya, ima-alaia, imajina (image, scenery) alaia (pleasing): "Pleasing scenery."

Harappa, the famous 5000 year old city in Pakistan; harapa means "plundered" in Basque, from harapatu (to plunder), which therefore can hardly be considered the true name of the city.

Goa, abbreviated from goardia (to stand guard), referring to the town's defenses.

Bihar, from bi-iha-ar, ibi-iha-arro, ibildari (nomadic) iha'urri (to scatter, to roam) arro (proud): "Proud roaming nomads." In the spoken language we find thousands of examples of words related to Basque, such as kut (in Malto) meaning "to burn", kutu (in Tamil) meaning "to be hot, to heat up", while kutxer (in Basque) means "frying pan" in which xer or xerra means "small steak" (in Basque the "x" is pronounced as "sh"). The Dravidian words ole (hearth, fireplace) and ola (inside) correspond exactly to Basque ola (cabin, hut). Being unable to read the different scripts in use by the Dravidian peoples, Edo Nyland used the transliterations and Basque translations provided by Dr. N. Lahovary in "Dravidian Origins and the West", published by Orient Longmans, Bombay, 1963. The page numbers in the following list refer to his book.

Page Dravidian English Basque English

164 ura wife urruxa female
165 irru (Ta) to bring forth errun to lay eggs
165 iru to be iruditu to resemble
165 il to be illi (Berber) to be
165 ul (Ta) to exist ulertu to understand
165 aru to give birth aur child
166 ali (Ma) woman ala girl
166 ir (Brahui) sister arre sister
167 kappu (Ka) meat kaba(l) domestic animal
167 odal (Te) body odol blood
167 biho heart bihotz heart
167 pala flesh opa offering
167 iracci (Ma) meat aragi meat
168 suri (S.Dr) to pour isuri to pour
168 ana (Ka) breath asnasa respiration
168 naru (S.Dr) odor narru skin
168 usir (Ka) breath usna smell
168 u-suru nose sur nose
169 sindu (Ka) bad smell sund-da stink
169 kuku (Malto) summit kukula summit, peak
170 buru (Te) something round bular/burar breast
171 karata (Ka) skull, coconut garaun skull brain
171 mula (Ma) brain muin brain
171 kara height garai high, prominent
171 bhala forehead belar (Zuber) forehead
172 gadda chin ganga mouth
172 ba (Ka) mouth abo mouth
174 begu (Ka) to spy behatu to observe
175 kan (Brahui) to know ikan to look
175 aks (S.Dr) sight ikus to see
175 vili eye igi eye
175 mugu (Ka) face musu face
175 muso (Malto) nose musu face
175 muti (Ka) face mutur snout
175 motu (Ta) stupidity mutur snout
175 mukka-ra(Te) nose-ring moko beak
176 musu (Ka) to smell mustur snout
176 ba (Ka) mouth abo mouth
177 appu (Ka) to embrace apa kiss
178 alasu (Ta) to rinse latsatu to wash
180 ele (Te) song ele story
180 gol (Ka) throat golo goiter
180 karai (Ta) to cry out garrasi shrill cry
181 kar-utti (Ma) neck garondo nape of the neck
182 kai (Tulu) hand uka hand
183 kurukh(C.Dr) to seize kargatu to load
183 kadi (S.Dr) to steal kaldar thief, scoundrel
184 adi (S.Dr) foot adar foot of chair
184 anga (Tel) stride anka foot
186 karu (Tu) leg garra (Navar) leg
188 ola (Ka) inside ola cabin, hut
189 bikku (S.Dr) heart bihotz heart
189 alku (Ta) vulva alu vulva
190 eru (Ka) dung errai dung
191 tottu (Ma) nipple titi nipple
191 borra (Te) potbelly zilbor navel
192 pal (Ka) milk galatz milk
192 putti (S.Dr) to be born puta womb
193 pukku (S.Dr) vulva puta womb
195 tshika (Tulu) small child txiki small
195 tkuri (S.Dr) short korro short
195 tkittu (S.Dr) small kuto small
196 iri (S.Dr) sick eri sick
196 kira (Gond) old man kira age
agura old man agure old man
197 ala (Ta) affliction aldia mental disorder
197 eriyu (Te) to grieve auri lamentation
197 karai (Ta) to cry out garrasi cry, scream
197 madi (Ta) death amata to kill
197 mara (Ka) death marrakari tearful
198 malagu (Ta) to perish malgu soft, weak
199 adu (S.Dr) age adin age
199 gasi (S.Dr) hunger gose hunger
199 manku (S.Dr) staggering mainku crippled, lame
199 ala (Ta) afflicted alusu feeble, weak
199 alasu (Ka) exhausted lazu weak man
200 elli (Te) night ilun darkness
200 lamba (S.Dr) to totter laban slippery, sliding
201 ema (Ta) mother, female ama mother
201 amma (Ka) female ama mother
201 pen (S.Dr) woman pena sorrow, grief
201 ali woman alaba daughter, native of...
201 al male ar male
202 unmu (Ka) birth ume child
202 maintu (Ta) love maita love
202 maru-vu (Ta) intimacy marruskatze fondling, pawing
202 appu (Ka) to embrace apatz to kiss
203 manju (S.Dr) amiable maina liking, pampering
203 iru (Ta) come into existence iruditu to appear
203 uru (Ta) to give birth aru (Berber) to be born
204 atta (Malto) grandfather aita father
204 apa (S.Dr) father ata father (child's)
204 ana (Ta) brother anai brother
204 asa (Kui) daughter aizpa sister
204 ari she arreba sister
205 ila (Ta) youth iloba niece
207 maran (Ta) bravery mardul robust, strong
207 marru enemy amarru cunning, shrewd
208 buti (Ka) man servant botoi man servant
210 burade (S.Dr) head buru head
210 bhuka opening bukatu to end
210 kara height garai high
210 gubbi (Ka) hump gupi deformed spine
210 kerki (Tulu) throat gurka throat
210 suri (S.Dr) to pour isuri to pour
210 khala thief kaldar thief
210 kiram (Ta) old kira period of time
210 konku curved makur roundness
210 in (Brahui) to say min tongue
210 pura (Malto) belly para belly
358 ari rock arri rock
359 kabi cave, hollow kabia nest, hollow
360 kam something round kamuts blunt
360 kuku summit, peak kukula summit, peak
360 men (Ma) mound, hillock mendi mountain
360 murru wall, quarry murru wall
361 padu village padur etxe lake dwelling
361 turu hill, mound torre tower
361 mugul (Ka) flower bud mugil flower bud
362 bar (Ka) stream, to flow ibar river valley
362 ala (Te) wave, surge olatu wave
362 garo (Kui) deep hollow,dig goratu to raise, to carry up
362 tura-i stream, ond iturri source of water
362 sala (Ka) to enter salazar country house
363 kara (Ta) to wash garastatu to sprinkle, to water
363 pani (Ta) rain panin (Zuber) water
The well-known Basque linguist A. Tovar followed this method to measure the degree of kinship of Basque with other languages of non-Indo-European origin. The closest relationship he found was with Berber (11%) followed by Circaskian/Kirrukaskan (7.5%), Coptic (6.5%), Arabic (3.25%). Then he asked Dr. Lahovary to try this method on Dravidian, with the astounding result of 50+%. This meant that, of all the languages tested so far, the Dravidian language was closest to Basque by far. However, the ease with which Edo Nyland assembled the long list of related Basque-Ainu words, makes it likely that Ainu could even be closer to early Basque than Dravidian. A student of Lexico-Statistical Method should test this possibility.
In his book, Linguistic Archaeology, Edo Nyland compared the Dravidian language with that of Guanche. He stated that, “Guanche is the name of the language which was spoken by the native population of the Canary Islands until the Spaniards came and massacred a large number of the inhabitants around 1,500 A.D. Mr. Arysio Nunes dos Santos discovered a relationship between Guanche and Dravidian, similar to what the eminent linguist Dr. N. Lahovary had described between Basque and Dravidian in his book: “Dravidian Origins and the West. What we are likely dealing with in these languages is remnants of the original language spoken in the Neolithic Sahara. This happened at the time of the disastrous desertification of that part of the world (see Climate), which had scattered the population to almost all ocean shores of the earth. That original language is not the same, of course, as the Basque spoken today, but a much earlier form of it, without the invented, formulaically enhanced VCV vocabulary added in. “

Nyland also noted that a few linguists have identified a large number of languages which also belong to this group: Numidian, Tuareg, Western Berber (Zenaga), Northern Berber (Tamahac), Southern Berber (Tamazheq), Eastern Berber (Siwa, Awjila-Sokna, Ghadames), Atlas (Shilha, Tamazight), Kabyle, Zenati (19 dialects) several of them still spoken. To this Neolithic group must also be added the large group of Dravidian languages spoken in India by some 160 million people, the Ainu language of Northern Japan with 17,000 speakers and Ancient Egyptian (extinct), including Coptic, which is still spoken as a liturgical language. Even the Polynesian languages seem to fit in this group.

Nyland found that Arysio Nunes collected as many Guanche words as possible and then compared them with Dravidian. Dravidian equivalents were obtained from “A Dravidian Etymological Dictionary” by T. Burrows and M.B. Emeneau (Oxford 1984). Arysio added that one should pay attention to the phonetic correspondences only, disregarding the actual spelling, because of the Dravidian alphabet being different from the Roman one adopted for the Guanche language. It must be assumed that he did his work well, because Nyland was unable to verify it.

Nyland continued that “A similar Guanche-Basque list could easily be made, e.g. achimencey (king’s relative) relates to atxikidura (family relation), achaman (heaven) comes close to akabu (death, supreme), ara (goat) and Basque aragi (meat), kara (goat) and Basque kara (in heat), Arautapola (capital of the Taoro kingdom) and Basque arautu (to legislate) etc. It looks to me like Guanche is derived from the original, unmanipulated Saharan language, just like Basque, Berber, Tuareg and Ainu.”

Thursday, April 5, 2012

Lewis Spence: The History of Atlantis

"When was the human race destroyed by a flood? Was it not before us? When was the world set on fire, and reduced to coals and ashes? Was it not before us? When were the greatest cities engulfed in the billows of the sea? Was it not before us? When were wars waged with wild beasts, and battles fought with lions? Was it not before us? When was ruin brought upon whole communities by poisonous serpents? Was it not before us?" -- Arnobius, author, 4th century

"... let it be remembered, that the very site of Nineveh was forgotten, that until a century ago only the barest outlines of Babylonian and Egyptian history were known to us, that their written hieroglyphs were undecipherable." -- Lewis Spence, author, The History of Atlantis, 1927

"... it is merely childish to refuse to believe the main details of Plato's story." -- Lewis Spence, author, The History of Atlantis, 1927

"Nine thousand years before Solon's day, or about 9600 B.C., war broke out between the the nations within the Pillars of Hercules and those beyond them." -- Lewis Spence, author, The History of Atlantis, 1927

"The name of the eldest son [of Uranus/Poseidon] was Atlas, who was king of the entire island [Antarctica/Atlantis/Ogygia], and from him the Atlantic Ocean takes its name. His twin brother was called, in the Atlantean language, Gadir, and in the Greek Eumolus." -- Lewis Spence, author, The History of Atlantis, 1927

"Uranus had forty-five children by various wives, and eighteen by Titea or Terra, who thus came to be known as Titans, or the Terrene people." -- Lewis Spence, author, The History of Atlantis, 1927

"Diodorus, in his Fifth Book, also states that a certain Atlantic island was discovered [sic] by some Phoenician navigators, who, while sailing along the west coast of Africa, were driven by violent winds across the Ocean [like Odysseus]. They brought back such an account of the beauty and resources of the island, that the Tyrrhenians, having obtained the mastery of the sea, planned an expedition to colonise the new land, but were hindered by the opposition of the Carthaginians. Diodorus does not mention the name of the island; and he differs from Plato by referring to it [Antarctica] as still existing." -- Lewis Spence, author, The History of Atlantis, 1927

"Pomponius Mela (b. A.D. 80) expressly affirmed in his First Book the existence of such an island as Atlantis, but places it in the Southern temperate zone [Antarctica/Terra Australis]." -- Lewis Spence, author, The History of Atlantis, 1927