"At what point do 'replacements' become enhancements?" -- Peter W. Singer, author, February 2009
Adelson, E., Bionic Athletes: Let 'em play, ESPN, Apr 2008
Prosthetic advances let athletes like Jerrod Fields and Anthony Burruto dream of keeping up with (or passing) the pros. If this sounds impossible - or unfair - you might want to keep reading.Fermoso, J., Prosthetic Limb Research Could Lead To Bionic Athletes, Gadgets Controlled by the Brain, Wired, Jul 2008
Oscar Pistorius, a double amputee, uses carbon fiber-composite legs and doesn’t define himself as disabled — he’s already considered one of the fastest men in the world. The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) agrees: When Pistorius requested to participate in the trials for the Beijing Olympics, he was flatly rejected.Mahoney, J., Paralympics: The Games Where Bionic Athletes Reign, Gizmodo, Sep 2008
Why? According to Time, ‘more energy is returned to [his] upper legs from his blades than from ankles and calf muscles and . . . uses less oxygen.’ He was too physically advanced to compete against ‘non-disabled’ men.
Before double-amputee sprinter Oscar Pistorius was finally approved to compete in the Olympics (he failed to qualify, barely), naysayers claimed his carbon-fiber Cheetah blade prostheses gave him an advantage over non-cyborg competitors.